Who Believed That Moral Development, Like Cognitive Development, Follows A Series Of Stages?
- Michael Davis
Kohlberg Kohlberg believed that moral development, like cognitive development, follows a series of stages.
Who believed that moral development?
Moral Reasoning by Lawrence Kohlberg is a widely prominent theory of moral development that was informed by the writings of Jean Piaget and John Dewey. Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory was offered by Lawrence Kohlberg. Through his research, Kohlberg was able to show that there are six distinct stages that humans go through in order to develop their moral reasoning.
These stages, which can be broken down into the categories of pre-conventional (focusing on avoiding punishment and looking out for one’s own interests), conventional (concerning social norms and authority figures), and post-conventional (concerning universal principles), continue to develop from childhood into adulthood.
When doing his research, Kohlberg was more interested in the thought process that went into a person’s response to a moral conundrum than he was in that person’s actual response. The Discrepancy Between Judgement and Action The gap between moral cognition and moral conduct has emerged as the most significant problem for moral theory over the course of the past forty years.
This is sometimes referred to as the gap between competence and performance, as well as the gap between morality and action. The phases of moral reasoning were the primary emphasis of Kohlberg’s theory, and the theory was founded on the concept of an individual’s capacity to think through a moral conundrum.
An oversight in the use of hypotheticals has led to the formation of this gap. Individuals, while imagining a hypothetical predicament, frequently fail to take into account the myriad of limits that exist in the real world. When a person applies their logic to a real-life moral conundrum, the opposite result occurs.
What is cognitive moral development theory?
Abstract Instead of focusing on moral principles in and of themselves, Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of cognitive-moral development places its primary emphasis on the process of thinking about moral concerns. A strategy of this kind sidesteps potential conflicts between religious and secular value systems, as well as issues pertaining to brainwashing and even the problem of moral relativism.
His theory establishes a hierarchy of levels of thinking on moral dilemmas, despite the fact that Kohlberg’s method does not specify specific values or a hierarchical ordering of values. Kohlberg comes to the conclusion that an individual’s degree of moral reasoning develops from childhood onward in a predetermined order through a total of six stages, despite the fact that the process can be stopped at any point.
It is reasonable to anticipate that students in a class for inmates will have reached stages 1-3 of their reasoning by this point; consequently, discussions of moral dilemmas among students will provide stage conflict, which, in turn, may assist students in moving on to higher levels of moral reasoning.
- Materials for moral discourse ought to be chosen so as to elicit thinking at levels one through three, and inquiries ought to be geared toward stages three and four of development.
- Although this strategy is efficient in provoking an investigation into a person’s moral thinking, development into a more advanced level is painstakingly gradual and often takes place over a period of years rather than weeks.
There are five different ways that moral problems may be presented, and examples of how moral difficulties might be presented in a literature class and a civic education class are supplied below. In the appendix, descriptions of each step of moral reasoning developed by Kohlberg are provided, and ten sources are mentioned.
What did Lawrence Kohlberg add to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?
Kohlberg’s phases of moral growth were influenced by Swiss scientist Jean Piaget’s stage-based theory of development, which is considered a significant contribution to the field of psychology. Kohlberg identified six phases of moral development, expanding on Piaget’s two stages of development of morality.
- He maintained that the most important aspect of making moral decisions was having proper moral thinking, and that having correct moral reasoning would lead to ethical action.
- Kohlberg held the belief that people, similar to how they advance through stages of cognitive growth, also move through phases of moral development.
The theory of moral growth proposed by Kohlberg contained three distinct levels and six distinct stages: The Morality of Before the Convention:
- The first stage consists of obedience and being punished. The child’s primary motivation is to avoid getting in trouble, and they have very little or none of their own autonomous moral thinking.
- Individualism and trade characterize the second stage. Individuals are concerned with ensuring that their personal self-interests are met, but also being cognizant of the fact that other people have varying points of view.
Morality According to Convention:
- The third stage involves continuing to maintain ties with other people. Individuals in this stage place a strong emphasis on the value of being nice to other people, engaging in “good” behavior, and demonstrating care for the wellbeing of others. At this point, there will be a significant focus placed on obtaining permission.
- Law and order constitutes the fourth stage. The person has made up their mind to comply with the regulations, and they are doing so by concentrating on the benefits that the law brings to human existence. At this point, a person can argue that violating the law is bad because the law is supposed to protect people and it is wrong because the law is designed to protect people. Individuals who have reached Stage 4 are primarily concerned with safeguarding cultural standards and the social order.
A Morality That Is Post-Conventional
- The fifth stage is the social contract. At this point in human evolution, people are concerned primarily with upholding individual rights while also acting in a manner that is beneficial to society as a whole. People in both the early and the late stages of post-conventional morality would support acts of civil disobedience.
- Stage six: Universal principles. At this point in time, people are concentrating their efforts on safeguarding the values of global justice, fairness, and ethics. They support participating in democratic elections, but they advocate defying laws that they feel are unfair.
In order for Kohlberg to assess at what level of moral growth his subjects were, he gave them with fabricated examples of moral conundrums, such as the scenario of a man who stole medicine for his ailing wife. According to Kohlberg, only a small percentage of people go to stages five and six; the majority of people often remain at stage four.
Did Piaget explain moral development?
Children’s conceptions of fairness and justice. This raises several interesting considerations, such as: Should the punishment be appropriate for the crime? • Is retribution always meted out to the guilty? Piaget discovered that children’s conceptions of norms, moral judgments, and punishment tended to evolve as the children grew older.
- Morality that is heteronomous (moral realism)
- Morality that stands on its own (moral relativism)
Who developed the cognitive development theory?
According to the theory of cognitive development proposed by Jean Piaget, children go through a progression of four distinct stages of learning. In his idea, the acquisition of information by children is secondary to the investigation of the fundamental properties of intelligence itself.
- Piaget’s phases are: Birth through two years constitutes the sensorimotor stage.
- Ages 2 to 7 comprise the preoperational period.
- Ages 7 to 11 comprise the concrete operating stage.
- Ages 12 and above throughout the formal period of operation Piaget held the belief that children participate actively in the process of learning, behaving in many ways similar to young scientists as they conduct experiments, make observations, and gain knowledge about the world around them.
Children’s engagement with the world around them results in a steady accumulation of new information, the expansion of previously held beliefs, and the modification of preconceived notions to make room for newly obtained knowledge. Verywell created this illustration by Joshua Seong.