What Characteristic Belongs Most In The Cognitive Domain Of Development?
- Michael Davis
Which of these qualities is most closely associated with the cognitive stage of development? From the moment of conception until the moment of death, there are a series of changes and continuity. A rite of passage is a ceremony that celebrates a person’s passing from one to another. Which of the following should NOT be included on a list of essential components of one’s physical development?
What are the three broad domains explored by developmental psychologists?
What Kinds of Effects Do Nature and Nurture Have on Development? – Are we the people we are as a result of our biology and genetics, or are we the people we are as a result of the environment and the culture in which we were raised? This age-old controversy is referred to as the “nature versus nurture argument” within the field of psychology.
It tries to understand how our personalities and characteristics are the product of our genetic make-up and the biological variables that influence us, as well as how they are influenced by our environment, which includes our parents, our peers, and our society. For instance, why do biological children occasionally behave in the same way as their parents? Is this due to genetics or the early childhood environment and the things that the kid has learnt from the parents? What about children who are adopted; are they more similar to their original families or are they more similar to the families that adopt them? How is it that children who come from the same parents can be so different? Everyone is born with unique genetic features that have been passed down from their parents, such as the color of their eyes, their height, and certain characteristics of their personalities.
However, beyond our fundamental genotype, there is a profound interplay between our genes and our environment, which includes the following: Our one-of-a-kind encounters within our environment have an impact on whether and how specific qualities are manifested, and at the same time, our genetic makeup has an impact on how we engage with the world around us (Diamond, 2009; Lobo, 2008).
- This chapter will explain that there is a reciprocal connection between nature and nurture as they both affect who we become, but the argument remains as to the proportional contributions of each.
- Nature and nurture both shape who we become.
- How does a person’s socioeconomic status affect their development and why is there such a gap in achievement? The term “achievement gap” refers to the consistent disparity in academic outcomes (such as grades, test scores, and graduation rates) that exists between students of different racial and ethnic backgrounds, and, in some fields of study, genders (Winerman, 2011).
According to research, the inequalities in socioeconomic characteristics that exist between the homes of these children appear to have a significant impact on the academic gaps that exist between their respective levels of accomplishment. Although the researchers recognize that interventions on such a massive scale would be challenging to implement, they also acknowledge that programs with the goal of reducing such socioeconomic disparities would probably help in equalizing the aptitude and performance of children from different backgrounds.
- As a result, it is advised that programs that aim to encourage aptitude and accomplishment among children who are underprivileged may be the greatest option for dealing with difficulties connected to disparities in academic ability (Duncan & Magnuson, 2005).
- Children from low-income families have a number of educational disadvantages compared to their peers from middle- and high-income families.
These disadvantages include significantly lower scores on standardized tests, graduation rates, and college entrance rates, as well as much higher rates of children leaving school before completing their education. There have been legislative initiatives at the state and federal levels that aim to close the achievement gap; but, what if the problems exist even before the children start attending school? Betty Hart and Todd Risley (2006) dedicated their whole careers researching the early language abilities and development of children from families with varying incomes.
- One longitudinal study found that all of the parents who participated in the study engaged and interacted with their children.
- However, the interactions that middle- and high-income parents had with their children differed significantly from the interactions that low-income parents had with their children.
The researchers analyzed 1,300 hours of parent-child interactions and discovered that parents with middle and high incomes communicate to their children much more beginning when the children are babies. This trend continues even after the children reach school age.
- Children from families with higher incomes knew roughly twice as many words as children from families with lower incomes did at the age of three, and they had heard an estimated 30 million more words in their lifetimes than children from families with lower incomes (Hart & Risley, 2003).
- And the differences only get more evident with time.
Children from high-income families have a 60 percentage point advantage over children from low-income families on standardized achievement exams before they even start kindergarten (Lee & Burkam, 2002). This issue may be addressed in a number of different ways.
At the University of Chicago, specialists are working with low-income families, visiting them at their homes, and urging parents to talk more often to their children on a daily and hourly basis. This initiative is part of a larger effort to improve children’s language development. Other professionals are developing plans for new types of preschools that will integrate youngsters from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds into the same classroom.
According to this study’s findings, children from low-income families who participated in specialized preschool programs had considerable improvements in their overall language development (Schechter & Byeb, 2007). What other strategies or programs could be used to bring about a reduction in the accomplishment gap? To what extent may the youngsters in your town or one of the surrounding communities benefit from the implementation of various sorts of activities? The study of how humans evolve and mature during their whole lives, from conception to death, is referred to as lifespan development.
Developmental psychologists are the ones who delve into this topic of psychology. They believe that development is a process that continues throughout a person’s whole life and can be researched scientifically throughout all three stages of development: physical, cognitive, and psychosocial. There are many different theories of development, and they generally center on one or more of the following questions about the process of development: whether it is continuous or discontinuous; whether it follows one path or many; and the relative importance of nature versus nurture in terms of development.
The viewpoint that growth is a cumulative process, steadily adding to the same sort of talents as one goes along, is referred to as the cumulative perspective.
- constant development
- discontinuous development
C The study of human growth and development is conducted by developmental psychologists, who focus on these three areas. Which of the following is not considered to fall under any of these categories?
B What exactly is meant by the term “development across a lifespan”?
- The study of how humans develop and change from the moment of conception to the moment of death.
- The study of how human beings develop and alter themselves during infancy and childhood.
- The study of children’s development in all aspects, including physical, cognitive, and psychosocial growth.
- The investigation of mental states, individual characteristics, and interpersonal connections.
A Explain the debate around the nature vs nurture dichotomy, and provide an example of a characteristic and how it could be affected by either nature or nurture. The debate over whether our personalities and characteristics are formed by our genetic make-up and other biological factors, or whether they are shaped by our environment, which includes things like our parents, peers, and culture, is known as the nature versus nurture debate.
- This debate seeks to answer the question of whether our personalities and characteristics are the product of our genetic make-up and other biological factors.
- Although modern psychologists are in agreement that both nature and nurture play a role in shaping who we become, the question of whether one plays a larger role in our development is still hotly contested.
A youngster who is learning to walk is a good illustration of this: However, culture may impact when a kid becomes proficient in a skill, as is the case in the Aché culture. Nature determines when the physical ability appears. Compare and contrast continuous and discontinuous growth.
- Continuous development sees our progress as a cumulative process: The conditions are slowly shifting.
- On the other hand, discontinuous development views human growth as occurring in distinct increments or stages, as follows: Changes are abrupt.
- Why should developmental milestones only be used as a broad guideline for the growth of a typical child? Children mature at their own individual paces.
For instance, some children start walking and talking as early as 8 months old, while others don’t accomplish either until long after their first birthday. This varies from kid to child. When a kid hits each of these developmental milestones will depend on his or her own circumstances at the time.
What best describes the relationship between maturation and genes?
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Which is the main characteristic of development?
A helpful hint: growth is defined as the steady rise in height that an organism experiences over time. The term “development” refers to the stage of an organism’s life cycle that encompasses all of its stages of growth, including evolution, differentiation, and maturation.
- The term “reproduction” refers to the process through which an organism gives birth to its own progeny.
- Finishing the Answer: The following are traits of development: (1) The process of development is one that is ongoing and takes place on a consistent basis.
- (2) The rate of growth that occurs during the developmental process varies from one individual to the next based on factors such as their state of health, the genetic traits they inherit, and the diet they follow.
(3) From infancy on to adulthood and beyond, development adheres to the appropriate pattern throughout the life cycle. It encompasses childhood, youth, adulthood, and old age. Those are all included. (4) The process of development is predictable in the natural world.
- (5) It is possible to have access to it in both a qualitative and quantitative manner.
- (6) The characteristics of an individual are linked to the natural world.
- (7) Both the individual and their environment played a role in the formation of this trait.
- Interrelationship: The processes of growth, development, and reproduction are all connected to one another in some way.
This can only occur due to the process of metabolization that takes place within the cells. At first, there is growth, and depending on the particular moment of growth, the individual is formed according to that growth. The organism will eventually reach maturity and begin the process of reproduction in order to create new offspring as its growth and development continue.
What are the main characteristics of human development?
There are many different aspects of life that might be considered to be contributors to human growth. According to the findings of a number of different studies, human development may be affected by factors such as social infrastructure, industrialization, population density, economic growth, government expenditure, and inequality in the distribution of wealth.
Why is Piaget theory of cognitive development important?
Strengths 1. Formal schooling People who work with children can benefit greatly from Piaget’s theories and works because they get an understanding of the phases of development that children go through as a result of having access to this knowledge. To describe the intellectual development of children of all ages, it is helpful to think of the building of identity and knowledge as one process that is reliant upon the progression of phases.
- The concepts of Jean Piaget have been crucial in the development of the concept of learning not as something sequential and linear, but rather as a component that needs to be comprehended in accordance to the cognitive stage that the kid is now in.
- Since of this, Piaget’s work becomes helpful to educators and others who interact with children because it enables one to understand why children learn at the rate that they do.
Educators and those who work with children The ability to describe some of the most fundamental reasons behind why children learn and how to proceed with the training of children is vital for people who work with children because it helps to explain some of the most fundamental concerns.
- Limitations 1.
- Techniques of Research Piaget’s observations of his own three children served as a significant source of motivation for the development of the theory.
- In addition to this, the other children who were included in Piaget’s limited study sample all came from professional families that had a high level of education and socioeconomic standing.
The researcher’s early efforts and conclusions came in for a lot of criticism as a direct result of using this study approach. It is difficult to apply his findings to a wider population since the sample he used was not typical of the community as a whole.2.
- Execution of Formal Procedures Piaget’s contention that all children would naturally go to the next stage of development when they reach the next age has been called into question by research.
- There is evidence from several studies to show that environmental influences may have contributed to the emergence of formal operations.3.
Underestimates Children’s Abilities The majority of scholars are of the opinion that Piaget’s hypothesis on the age at which children develop certain abilities is incorrect. Recent study in the field of theory of mind has shown that toddlers as young as 4 and 5 years old have a very comprehensive awareness of both their own mental processes and the mental processes of other individuals.
Which question is most important to developmental psychology?
The answer, along with an explanation: In the field of developmental psychology, the most crucial question to ask is: How do our genetic make-up and our experiences impact our development? This topic of discussion is often known as the nature vs nurture argument.
Which developmental domain is the most important?
Language Development Reading to your child, especially in the early years of their life, is one of the most beneficial activities you can share with them and should not be limited to just before sleep.
What are the major domains of development?
The Different Stages of Development Human development is constituted of four primary domains: physical development, cognitive development, social-emotional development, and linguistic development. Although each domain is distinct in its own right, they all have a great deal of overlap with one another.
- It is essential to have a solid grasp of these ideas given that everything having to do with human development can be linked back to these four distinct areas of development.
- Growth in a physical sense Changes in size and strength, as well as the integration of sensory and motor activities, as well as the development of fine and gross motor abilities, are all examples of aspects of physical development.
Physical development is described as the biological changes that occur in the body and brain. The direction in which children’s bodies grow and change throughout time follows a pattern. The muscles in the trunk, legs, and arms of the body mature first, followed by the muscles in the hands and fingers.
Before they learn how to execute fine or small motor skills like drawing, children first learn how to perform big (or large) motor abilities like walking. These skills are learned before they learn how to perform fine or tiny motor skills like drawing. The muscles that are placed closer to the center of the body tend to develop more quickly and become stronger than the muscles that are closer to the extremities.
The head all the way down to the toes is where physical growth begins. When children reach the age of preschool, their diets start to resemble those of adults in a great deal more ways. Consuming a wide variety of meals is essential for ensuring that children receive the necessary nutrients for good physical development.
This is especially true for younger children. The use of fruit juice, milk, and other similar beverages should be restricted for youngsters, according to the recommendations of many specialists. If a youngster is just drinking milk and juice to satisfy their hunger, then it is likely that they are not consuming a variety of meals.
Cognitive Development Cognitive development may be thought of as the process through which our thinking, understanding, and reasoning about the environment evolves over time. As was discussed in the section under “Roles of the Theorists,” Jean Piaget was responsible for the formulation of several influential ideas addressing the intellectual growth of children.
- The phases of cognitive development proposed by Piaget provide an illustration of the maturation of a kid.
- The varying stages of mental development Between birth to the age of two, an infant’s understanding of the outside world is restricted to his or her sensory perceptions and motor activity.
- This stage is known as the sensorimotor stage.
The only behaviors that can occur are basic motor reactions to inputs received from the environment. The Preoperational Stage refers to the time period between the ages of two and six when a kid is learning how to utilize language. At this phase in their development, children are unable to comprehend concrete reasoning, are unable to mentally manipulate knowledge, and are unable to grasp or empathize with the perspectives of other people.
- The Concrete Operational Stage refers to the time span between the ages of seven and eleven years old, during which youngsters get a greater comprehension of mental functions.
- Young children are able to begin thinking rationally about tangible experiences, but they have difficulties grasping concepts that are abstract or hypothetical.
A person enters the Formal Operational Stage when they are between the ages of twelve and maturity and have developed the ability to think about abstract topics. During this stage, skills such as logical thinking, deductive reasoning, and methodical planning also emerge.
- Go to the “Roles of Theorists” tab up top for further more information about Piaget’s views regarding the development of cognitive abilities.
- Development of Social and Emotional Skills The term “social-emotional development” refers to the changes that occur in the ways in which we relate to other people as well as the methods in which we express and comprehend our feelings.
The capacity of a child to recognize and comprehend his or her own feelings, to accurately read and comprehend the emotional states of others, to successfully manage intense emotions and the expression of those emotions in a constructive manner, to successfully regulate his or her own behavior, to cultivate empathy for others, and to establish and maintain relationships are the fundamental aspects of emotional development.
- In order for babies and toddlers to have a healthy social and emotional development, they need to develop in an interpersonal setting, especially one that consists of good continuing connections with people who are familiar and supportive.
- Emotion and cognition work together to shape the child’s impressions of different scenarios and their conduct in response to those scenarios.
Children will go through a variety of experiences that will contribute to their emotional and cognitive development. These experiences will be related to their interactions and relationships with adults and peers, their sense of self, the recognition of their abilities, the expression of their emotions, their ability to control their emotions, their ability to control their impulses, and their social understanding.
- A film that explains how a child’s social and emotional development should progress from birth through childhood is provided for your viewing pleasure below.
- Language Development Babies are able to comprehend language even before they can speak.
- In other words, the ability to comprehend comes before the ability to produce language.
The rates at which children learn language might vary greatly from one child to the next. The following are examples of the four distinct facets of language: phonology, which refers to the sounds that are used to make up the language; syntax, which refers to the grammar of the language; semantics, which refers to the meanings of words; and pragmatics, which refers to how we use language to communicate in social settings.
Both the Broca’s area and the Wernicke’s area play a significant role in the development and utilization of language. Broca’s area is responsible for the creation of speech, while Wernicke’s area is responsible for comprehending and making meaning of what is said. There is a natural progression that takes place in children’s language development, although the ages at which each stage is reached might vary greatly from kid to child.
Crying, cooing, babbling, and pointing are the primary modes of communication for newborns before they are able to use words. When infants and toddlers first begin to verbalize, they do so by utilizing a single word at a time, and they go on to build their first sentences by stringing together two words.
Which has a greater influence on the child’s cognitive development his genetic factor or his social environment?
Because it shapes a kid into the person they will become, the environment is the factor that has the biggest impact.
Is cognitive development genetic or environmental?
Changes in a person’s heritability that occur throughout the course of their development Children are born with all of their genes, and as they grow, they are exposed to a more diverse set of environmental inputs. As a result, it is reasonable to anticipate that the amount of variance in psychological outcomes that can be attributed to genetic diversity will decrease with increasing age.
- In spite of the fact that this seems like a reasonable concept, studies have shown that the effect of genetics on cognition really grows significantly with age.
- Figure 1 displays the aggregated findings of 11 different longitudinal twin and adoption studies on cognition.
- The research focused on twins and adoption.
Genes contribute for less than 25% of the diversity in cognitive ability throughout infancy, whereas the shared environment within the family accounts for around 60% of this variation. However, by the time a person reaches puberty, genes are responsible for around 70 percent of the diversity in cognition, whereas the common environment is responsible for almost little variation.
- Cross-sectional studies conducted first by McCartney, Harris, and Bernieri (1990) and McGue, Bouchard, Iacono, and Lykken (1993), and more recently by Haworth et al., uncovered these age-related trends ( 2009 ).
- The percentage of the overall cognitive variation that may be attributed to age.
- The amount of uncertainty associated with each line is depicted by the shading that surrounds them ( 1 SE).
The family environment, also known as the shared environment, is comprised of the various environmental factors that are responsible for the increased similarity between children who are reared in the same household. The phrase “unique environment,” also known as the “nonshared environment,” refers to the environmental factors that distinguish one set of siblings from another that was reared in the same home.
The data were compiled from previously published reports and were based on 11 different longitudinal twin and adoption samples (weighted by the precision of the individual estimates): the Colorado Adoption Project (Petrill et al., 2004), the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort (Tucker-Drob, Rhemtulla, Harden, Turkheimer, & Fask, 2011), the Longitudinal Twin Study (Bishop et al ( Hart, Petrill, Deater-Deckard, & Thompson, 2007 ).
Abstracts were searched through in PsycINFO to locate the relevant articles. We included longitudinal studies that had samples of siblings with varying degrees of genetic relatedness, complete cross-time and within-time sibling correlations (or parameters from behavioral genetic models producing expectations for these correlations), measurement using an objective cognition/intelligence test, and participants under the age of 19 at both the baseline and at least one follow-up measurement occasion.
The search results provided us with the information we needed to include these factors. Within the context of the transactional framework, we are able to comprehend the progressive rise in the heritability of cognition that occurs during development. Early genetic influences on cognitive development will become more prominent as children choose and evoke experiences that are congruent with their genetic predispositions, and as these experiences, in turn, stimulate the children’s cognitive development, the effects of these early genetic influences will become more pronounced.
It is anticipated that this compounding process would speed up as youngsters receive an increasing amount of autonomy in picking their social groups, after-school activities, academic courses, and other beneficial learning experiences. A second argument for the developmental rise in heritability is that “new” genes that did not previously impact cognition may become active later on in development.
This is one explanation for why heritability increases with development. For instance, the bodily changes that occur throughout puberty may cause changes in gene expression, or genetic variations that were not previously significant for cognition may become significant as a result of changes in the social circumstances in which children are raised.
In point of fact, both the activation of “new” genes and gene-environment interactions may contribute to developmental gains in the heritability of cognition; however, the relative relevance of each process may change throughout the course of a person’s lifetime.
Activation of “new” genes may be the primary mechanism that underlies increasing heritability in early childhood, according to longitudinal studies of behavioral genetics; however, transactional processes may be the primary mechanism that underlies increasing heritability in middle childhood and adolescence ( Briley & Tucker-Drob, in press ).
Unfortunately, most of what is known about the behavioral genetics of cognitive development was collected from samples of twins in the United States that were chosen at random and from samples of twins chosen at random from populations that were less racially and socioeconomically diverse.
What are the characteristics of growth and development?
A List of Elements That Impact Human Growth and Development – The list of factors that influence human growth and development that follows includes the following: The transfer of a person’s physical and social features from their parents to their children is a process known as heredity.
Genes and heredity play a significant part in this process. Hereditary factors have a significant impact on a variety of aspects of a person’s maturation and development, including intellect, aptitudes, physical shape, height, weight, and the color of their hair and eyes. Sexual activity: Sexual activity is a very significant aspect that plays a role in the expansion and maturation of the human body.
There is a significant gender gap in terms of the growth and development that occurs between girls and boys. In their teenage years, ladies often experience quicker physical development than boys do. In general, girls have a distinct bodily structure, and their growth is different from that of boys.
- Socioeconomic: There is no question that socioeconomic issues have some influence.
- It has been shown that children from families with varied degrees of socioeconomic status have significantly differing average body sizes throughout all ages.
- The upper-class households have historically been more technologically sophisticated.
The most significant factors contributing to this change include improvements in nutrition and facilities, as well as more consistent mealtimes, sleeping hours, and exercise. The size of the family also has an effect on the pace of growth since large families with limited resources frequently have children who do not receive the correct nutrition, which in turn has an effect on the rate of growth.
- Nutrition: The relationship between growth and nutrition is quite close.
- For appropriate growth, the human body requires a sufficient amount of calories, and the needs and requirements for these calories change depending on the stage of development the body is in.
- According to research, malnutrition is referred to as an issue that is on a huge scale in a number of developing countries.
They have an increased risk of being underweight, much shorter than usual, and having a low height in relation to their age, which is referred to as stunting. The children’s rate of physical development will be slowed down if they are malnourished. There are nine distinct amino acids that are required for development; the lack of any one of them will result in growth that is abnormal or stunted.
- Other components, including as zinc, iodine, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins, are also necessary for healthy development and growth, and deficiencies in any of these components might interfere with the body’s ability to grow and develop normally.
- Hormones are produced by the many different endocrine glands that may be found throughout the human body.
These glands can be responsible for the direct release of one or more hormones into the circulation. These hormones have the ability to increase or decrease the activity level of the body as a whole or of specific organs within the body. Hormones are recognized as a chemical that encourages and sustains development.
- These hormones have a significant impact on the process of controlling an organism’s rate of growth and development.
- Pollution: According to research, not only does pollution in the air have an impact on the respiratory organs, but it also has a negative impact on the growth of humans.
- Indoor pollution, also known as pollution caused by housing circumstances, can lead to ill health, which in turn has the potential to adversely affect human growth and development.
For instance, lead poisoning can result through exposure to deteriorating lead-based paint found in older homes, which can be quite hazardous. Lead is extremely dangerous for children because it easily enters their developing bodies and interferes with the natural growth of their brains as well as the development of their other organs and systems.
- This makes lead one of the most dangerous substances for children.
- Race is a factor that not only affects a person’s height and weight, but also their skin color, facial characteristics, and overall body composition.
- The distinctions in how the body grows and develops suggest that there is a link between different cultural groupings.
For instance, the color of a kid born into the black race will be determined by their ancestry, as will their height, the color of their hair and eyes, and the shape of their face.
What are the 5 principles of development?
Tenth Developmental Principle: There Is a Constant Interaction Between All Factors of Development: – The progression of one field is intimately connected to the progression of other fields. A youngster, for instance, who has strong physical health is in a better position to engage in academically stimulating and socially engaging activities.