How Does Culture Influence Personal Development?
- Michael Davis
IN SUMMARY – One of the most influential aspects of your surroundings that contributes to the formation of your personality is the culture in which you were raised. It’s possible that conceptions about personality prevalent in Western society aren’t relevant to other civilizations.
- There is empirical evidence to suggest that different cultures value different aspects of personality more highly;
- Different fundamental principles are prioritized by societies that have an individualist or collectivist worldview;
People who live in societies that value individualism are more likely to hold the beliefs that independence, rivalry, and personal accomplishment are significant. People who live in cultures that are collectivist place a higher importance on social peace, respectfulness, and the needs of the collective than they do on the needs of the individual.
- Studying personality in the context of a particular culture can be done using one of three methods: the cultural-comparative method, the indigenous method, or the combined method, which combines aspects of the first two methods;
References: Text from OpenStax Psychology written by Kathryn Dumper, William Jenkins, Arlene Lacombe, Marilyn Lovett, and Marion Perlmutter and shared under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. OpenStax College: https://details.openstax.org/books/psychology.
How culture affects your personality examples?
Taking a look at cultures that are more individualistic and those that are more collectivistic can provide a good illustration of how culture can have an effect on a person’s personality. People who live in societies that value individualism are more likely to be idiocentric, or interested in doing things their own way.
- People who live in societies that are more collectivist are more likely to be allocentric, which means that they direct their attention away from themselves and onto other people;
- People who have a greater tendency to be egocentric may have a greater propensity to exhibit the following personality traits:
Emotional distance Competitiveness Self-reliance Higher self-esteem
On the other side, individuals who are more allocentric may be more prone to demonstrate other qualities, including but not limited to the following:
Sociability Empathy A reduced self-esteem Ease with which one is embarrassed
It is possible for there to be variances in personality even among members of the same collectivistic or individualistic cultural or ethnic group;
For instance, collectivism might have a vertical aspect, as is the case in India, or it can have a horizontal one, as is the case in the kibbutz in Israel. People who live in cultures that are vertically collectivist may have a greater propensity to defer to those in power and to behave in more traditional ways.
- People who identify with cultures and ethnic groups that practice horizontal collectivism tend to be more empathic, cooperative, and friendly;
- Additionally, our ethnic background might have an effect on our personalities, more especially on how others interpret our personalities;
One study found, for instance, that in comparison to Germans, Chinese people are more ready to forgive dishonesty if they believe that it will help another person maintain their self-respect. And visitors may see that Americans have personalities that are characterized by a sense of superiority and pride, whereas Japanese people have personalities that are characterized by a sense of respect for others.
What are influenced by culture and individual personalities?
The formation of personalities is in large part influenced by one’s culture, which in turn is shaped by their ecology. There are characteristics of a person’s personality that are universal, as well as features that are culture-specific. Some features of culture directly correspond to cultural syndromes, such as complexity, tightness, individuality, and collectivism.
How does culture relate to personality?
Robert LeVine, in his book Culture, Behavior and Personality (1982), makes the argument that there are five distinct perspectives that characterize the field of study of culture and personality. This is done in order to account for the lack of uniformity that exists in the study of culture and personality.
Ruth Benedict, Margret Mead, and Geoffrey Gore presented what is possibly the most widely known interpretation of the data. It was known as the configuration method, and it merged psychological theories with the Boasian concept of cultural relativism (LeVine 1982:53).
It held the position that the culture and personality were so intertwined with one another that they could not be analyzed independently of one another. This viewpoint is frequently attacked on the grounds that it overstates the degree to which a culture is consistent and ignores the existence of intra-cultural heterogeneity.
- In particular, Benedict was attacked for being overly humanistic and for not making sufficient use of quantitative facts;
- The anti-culture-personality relationship was a second viewpoint that was presented;
According to this point of view, there is no requirement to talk about the mental state of an individual. According to this point of view, in order for people to live, they have created reflexes that are tailored to the conditions of their environment. “In every human community, there is only one normal distribution that replicates itself for personality types and features” (LeVine 1982:45).
- The psychological reductionist perspective is the third one;
- This required taking a look into individual psychology in order to determine the reasons for social behavior;
- Contenders for this idea included Freud and many who followed in his footsteps;
In the Culture and Personality school, it appears to have attracted the least amount of attention or adherents overall. According to LeVine (1982:59), the only two theories that made it into the 1980s were “personality mediation” and the “two-systems viewpoint.” During this time period, none of these theories was widely accepted.
Abram Kardiner, a psychotherapist, and Ralph Linton, an anthropological, were the ones who came up with the concept of personality mediation. It suggests that a society’s core institutions, such as its patterns of sustenance and settlement, are influenced by the natural environment in which it exists.
These, in turn, have an effect on the fundamental structure of personality, which, in turn, has an effect on the secondary institutions, such as religion. The individual’s personality emerges as an influential factor. This perspective brought together the social and cultural reductionism with the more traditional psychological approach.
Inkeles and Levinson, together with Melford Spiro, were the ones who established the two-systems view. It postulated that personality and culture have an interactive and balancing effect on one another. “in the manner in which personality impacts the functioning of the sociocultural system,” to quote what Spiro was primarily interested in, the sociocultural system (LeVine 1981:59).
Culture and personality are seen more as components of a comprehensive field than as independent systems or even as viable analytical abstractions from data of the same order. This shift in perspective came about because researchers began to consider personality and culture as intertwined (Kluckhohn 1954: 685).
- To put it another way, personality and culture are intertwined aspects of a single continuum that cannot exist alone;
- Patterns of socialization are influenced by culture, which in turn creates some of the individual differences in personality (Maccoby 2000);
Every civilization has its own distinct culture and history since it was formed via a different set of socialization processes than other communities. On the basis of this viewpoint, one should not presume that universal laws regulate the way in which civilizations advance.
How does culture affect behavior?
We might anticipate a greater demand for social connection if culture encourages the development of an extraverted personality style. In addition, individualistic societies encourage individuals to be more confident and forthright in their actions. When society as a whole promotes these gregarious activities, there is a greater flow of ideas and a rise in individuals’ levels of self-esteem.
How does culture influence mindset?
Cultural Mindsets People are likely to participate in patterns of conduct that are based on their comprehension of the culture coupled with their own predisposition ideas, although these patterns might vary depending on the cultural norms and regulations that exist within a group (and on awareness of these rules).
What role does culture play in shaping a person’s identity?
Culture is a defining aspect of a person’s identity, since it contributes to how a person views themselves as well as the organizations with whom they identify. The formation of a person’s knowledge of their own identity as well as the identities of others begins from birth and is influenced by the norms, values, and perspectives that are held within the context of their family and the community in which they live.
Greg Noble, a professor at the University of Western Sydney, talks on the connection between culture, ethnicity, and identity. The following video demonstrates: Culture, ethnicity, and identity is a video by Racism No Way that can be viewed on Vimeo.
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Why culture is important for an individual?
Culture has major social and economic advantages, in addition to the value that it possesses in and of itself. Culture improves our quality of life and leads to a rise in general well-being for both people and groups. Improvements in learning and health, more tolerance, and chances to join together with others are all ways in which culture does this.
What are five personality traits that are affected by culture?
Let’s take a look at how the Big Five personality traits (conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion) manifest themselves in different cultures.
Why might it be important to consider cultural influences on personality?
Learning Objectives: By the time you’ve finished reading this part, you should be able to do the following:
- Compare and contrast the characteristics of persons who are raised in collectivist and individualist societies.
- The study of personality in relation to culture may be broken down into three distinct methods.
As you have discovered throughout this chapter, aspects of one’s personality may be influenced by both their genes and their surroundings. One of the most influential aspects of your surroundings that contributes to the formation of your personality is the culture in which you were raised (Triandis & Suh, 2002). A society’s whole collection of shared ideas, rituals, aesthetic preferences, and historical practices are collectively known as its culture.
People learn their culture not just via language but also through the modeling of culturally acceptable and nonacceptable actions, which are either rewarded or penalized. Language is the primary vehicle through which culture is transferred (Triandis & Suh, 2002).
In light of these concepts, personality psychologists have developed an interest in the part that culture plays in gaining an understanding of the human psyche. They want to know if there are universal characteristics of personality or if there are variances based on culture.
- It would appear that the differences in people’s personalities may be attributed to a combination of cultural influences and factors that are culture-specific;
- Why could it be significant to take into account the ways in which culture affects personality? Ideas about personality that are common in the West might not translate well to other cultures (Benet-Martinez & Oishi, 2008);
There is empirical evidence to suggest that different cultures value different aspects of personality more highly. Let’s take a look at how the Big Five personality traits (conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion) manifest themselves in different cultures.
- Studying social psychology will teach you that Asian cultures are more collectivist, and that individuals who live in these cultures tend to be less extroverted than those in other cultures;
- Those from cultures in Central and South America tend to have greater scores on openness to experience, whereas people from cultures in Europe tend to have higher scores on neuroticism (Benet-Martinez & Karakitapoglu-Aygun, 2003);
According to the findings of this research, there also appear to be personality variations based on location inside the United States ( [link] ). The replies of almost 1.5 million people living in the United States were evaluated by researchers, who came to the conclusion that there are three unique regional personality clusters: Cluster 1, which includes the Upper Midwest and the Deep South, is dominated by people whose personalities can be described as “friendly and conventional.” Cluster 2, which also includes the West, is dominated by people whose personalities can be described as more relaxed, emotionally stable, calm, and creative.
Cluster 3, which also includes the Northeast, has more people who are stressed, irritable, and depressed. In general, those who live in Clusters 2 and 3 have a more outgoing personality (Rentfrow et al. , 2013).
The United States was found to include three unique regional personality clusters, according to the research. People in the Upper Midwest and Deep South are often outgoing and traditional, but those in the West are calm, emotionally stable, and creative.
On the other hand, those in the Northeast are more likely to be agitated, irritable, and sad (Rentfrow et al. , 2013). Selective migration is one theory that attempts to explain the geographical disparities (Rentfrow et al.
, 2013). The idea that people choose to relocate to locations that are more suitable to their personalities and the requirements of their lives is known as selective migration. For instance, a person who scores high on the agreeableness measure is more likely to have the desire to live close to their family and friends and is more likely to select a location that allows them to do so.
- On the other hand, someone with a high level of openness might choose to make their permanent home in a region that is recognized for both its diversity and its inventive spirit (such as California);
- Different fundamental principles are prioritized by societies that have an individualist or collectivist worldview;
People who live in societies that value individualism are more likely to uphold the beliefs that independence, rivalry, and personal accomplishment are essential. People living in Western nations like the United States, England, and Australia have a high level of individualism, as measured by surveys (Oyserman, Coon, & Kemmelmier, 2002).
- People who live in cultures that are collectivist place a higher importance on social peace, respectfulness, and the needs of the collective than they do on the needs of the individual;
- People who make their homes in nations from Asia, Africa, and South America tend to have high levels of collectivism (Hofstede, 2001; Triandis, 1995);
These principles have an effect on one’s personality. For instance, Yang (2006) discovered that people who lived in cultures that emphasized individualism displayed more personality traits that were focused on the individual, whereas people who lived in cultures that emphasized collectivism displayed more personality traits that were focused on the group.
The cultural-comparative approach, the indigenous approach, and the combined approach, which contains parts of both viewpoints, are the three methods that may be used to study personality in the context of a culture.
The cultural-comparative approach is the most common method. The cultural-comparative method is one that aims to test Western notions about personality in other cultures to discover whether or not they can be generalized and whether or not they have cultural validity.
This is due to the fact that views about personality originate from the West (Cheung van de Vijver, & Leong, 2011). For instance, if you remember from the prior part on the trait viewpoint, the researchers that tested the universality of McCrae and Costa’s Five Factor Model employed the cultural-comparative technique.
They discovered that the theory could be used in a variety of civilizations all around the world, with the Big Five characteristics remaining consistent across many of these nations (McCrae & Costa, 1997; McCrae et al. , 2005). As a response to the preponderance of Western methodologies in the analysis of personality in non-Western contexts, the indigenous approach emerged as a viable alternative (Cheung et al.
, 2011). The indigenous model has led to the development of personality assessment instruments that are based on personality constructs that are relevant to the culture that is being studied. This is because Western-based personality assessments are unable to fully capture the personality constructs of other cultures (Cheung et al.
, 2011). The combined approach is the third method used in cross-cultural research on personality. This method acts as a link between Western psychology and indigenous psychology and seeks to comprehend both universal and cultural differences in personality (Cheung et al.
, 2011). One of the most significant aspects of your surroundings that contributes to the development of your personality is the culture in which you were raised. It’s possible that conceptions about personality prevalent in Western society aren’t relevant to other civilizations.
There is empirical evidence to suggest that different cultures value different aspects of personality more highly. Different fundamental principles are prioritized by societies that have an individualist or collectivist worldview. People who live in societies that value individualism are more likely to uphold the beliefs that independence, rivalry, and personal accomplishment are essential. People often refer to the United States as having a _______ culture.
B It is known as the notion of _______ when individuals choose to migrate to areas that are suitable for their personality and the requirements they have.
- Migration based on chosen criteria
- personality that is focused on the self
- a personality that is socially orientated
A Why could it be significant to take into account the ways in which culture affects personality? Because of the strong effect that one’s culture has on their personality, Western conceptions about personality might not be appropriate to persons who come from different cultures. When employed for the purpose of data collection on persons from different cultures, personality evaluation methods that are grounded in Western thought could not be reliable. According to the research that Rentfrow and his colleagues have conducted, personalities are not dispersed at random.
People who live in cultures that are collectivist place a higher importance on social peace, respectfulness, and the needs of the collective than they do on the needs of the individual. Studying personality in the context of a particular culture can be done using one of three methods: the cultural-comparative method, the indigenous method, or the combined method, which combines aspects of the first two methods.
Instead, they may be categorized into their own unique geographic groupings. Are you in agreement or disagreement with the characteristics that are linked with both you and the people who live in the region of the nation in which you make your home? If not, then why not?.
How does culture affect personality psychology?
According to research done, the intensity of personality characteristics differs significantly between different cultures. People who come from cultures that are more individualistic tend to place a higher value on things like independence, competition, and personal achievement, whereas people who come from cultures that are more collectivist tend to place a higher value on things like social harmony, respect, and the requirements of the group.
How do culture and family determine the development of personality?
The influence of a person’s culture on their personality is the second factor. The individual’s social environment is the component of the individual’s world that is most relevant in terms of the formation of the individual’s personality. Every single human being is a part of a society, which can be defined as a collection of people that interact with one another.
Each society has its own culture, which consists of a body of knowledge, a particular way of thinking, feeling, and attitude, as well as objectives, aspirations, and a value system. Culture governs our lives and exerts an impact on the development of our personalities at every step.
It does this largely by prescribing and restricting the experiences and knowledge that an individual will be needed to acquire for the maturation of his personality. A culture like this teaches its members what kinds of behaviors are expected of them and what kinds of behaviors are acceptable to the group.
Each culture has its own ideas, requirements, and methods of child rearing, as well as its own set of expectations regarding patterns of acceptable behavior. In addition, each culture has its own standards for what constitutes appropriate social behavior.
The means by which certain objectives, such as perpetuating the group and preserving unity, or satisfying the fundamental requirements of its members, can be accomplished can vary greatly from one culture to another. There are various cultural norms that prescribe particular approaches to child rearing, each of which is tailored to meet the specific requirements of a particular group.
Children who come from families with different socioeconomic backgrounds have different personality structures, behaviors, and attitudes than children from families with the same socioeconomic background.
They are different with regard to achieving motivation, which is the fundamental requirement that will lead to success in life. In general, parents from middle-class families place a strong emphasis on their children’s academic success, while parents from lower-class families do not.
- The youngster from a lower-class family is less likely to have the ability to “wait gratification,” according to sociological research;
- This is likely due to the fact that the child’s future is less clear;
As a result, the different levels of social class contribute to the establishment of a wide variety of goals, approaches, and procedures in the process of creating social behavior, which in turn causes individuals to develop personalities that are distinct from one another.
Does culture affect anyone’s attitude and behavior?
What exactly is culture? This question has been asked and culture has been described in a variety of different ways by several researchers from a wide range of academic fields. A number of different definitions of culture have been compiled by Adler (1997, 15).
According to her, the definition of culture is something that all or practically all members of a certain social group share in common. Something that the more experienced members of the group work hard to instill in the more junior members of the organization.
Something (such as morality, laws, or norms), which molds behavior or. shapes how a person sees the world, as in the case of the examples given. Culture encompasses more than just the arts; it is the foundation upon which our lives are built. It has an effect on our behaviors, as well as our beliefs and attitudes.
On the other hand, we are active participants in the formation of our culture and have an impact on it. According to Levo-Henriksson (1994), culture encompasses not only the mythologies and value systems of a society but also the day-to-day ways of life of its members.
According to Roos (1986), culture may be seen as a system of lifestyles and as a dominant factor in lifestyles. The way we conduct our life reflects our culture, which may be described as vast and rigid, totality, uniformity, regularity, and similarity.
- Within the context of a culture, one’s lifestyle choices might serve as a prospective guideline for their existence;
- Adler (1997, 15-16) asserts that a society’s culture, beliefs, attitudes, and actions all impact one another;
[Citation needed] A value is a factor that is overtly or implicitly desired and that impacts our judgments. Values may be defined as elements that are attractive in any sense. It is not necessary for values to be aware; rather, values may also be unconscious.
- Our heritage provides the foundation for our morals and principles;
- The expression of our ideals through our actions and reactions to various things is influenced by our attitudes;
- Even if a person does not recognize their own attitudes, such attitudes are always there in their behavior;
Without attitudes, there is no possibility of action. Any action carried out by a human being can be considered a sort of behavior. The culture of a civilization is shaped in part by the actions of both people and groups. Without the actions of the population, there can be no culture in the society.
What are cultural influences examples?
Children develop a sense of their own identities based on their cultural backgrounds. The distinctive cultural influences that children are exposed to from the moment they are born, such as traditions and beliefs pertaining to cuisine, creative expression, language, and religion, have an effect on the manner in which they grow emotionally, socially, physically, and linguistically.
Learning can be hampered when a child’s sense of self-identity is at variance with the social milieu that they are a part of as a result of cultural differences. Thankfully, teachers who are culturally competent are able to assist students of all racial and ethnic backgrounds in their educational pursuits by demonstrating an awareness of and openness to a variety of cultures, as well as an appreciation for the ways in which these cultures contribute to an individual’ Those who work with children, such as social workers, counselors, and specialists, need to understand the cultural influences on child development and how they impact the way people grow and learn.
Culture is a powerful indicator of a child’s future well-being, so those who work with children need to understand the cultural influences on child development. Future professionals can be prepared for success in these roles by earning a degree such as the online Bachelor of Arts in Human Development and Family Studies offered by Maryville University.
How does culture affect people’s relationship?
Home > Does Culture Define Communication Style? Does Culture Define Communication Style? Does Culture Define Communication Style?
• Originally published on March 26, 2012 by A GoodTherapy.org A Brief Overview of the News There is a wide variety of means of communication utilized by married couples all around the world.
People in many nations adhere to a set of cultural norms, and these norms have a direct impact on the manner in which persons who share close ties communicate with one another. These standards also influence other actions and attitudes, which in turn have a considerable impact on interpersonal connections.
Because the cultures of China and the United States are so unlike to one another, it is reasonable to suppose that partners in a Chinese marriage will communicate in a different manner and hold different attitudes about their partnerships than partners in an American couple.
- It is essential to have an understanding of these various points of view in order to effectively address and manage the problems that beset Chinese couples living in the United States;
- Hannah C;
- Williamson of the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles recently led a study evaluating these factors in a sample of 41 Chinese newlywed couples and 50 newlywed couples from the United States;
The purpose of the study was to determine how attitudes and communication patterns influence the overall satisfaction of Chinese couples in comparison to American couples. Williamson anticipated that the American couples would have a more optimistic outlook than the Chinese couples because American couples are more likely to conform to individualistic ideals and value intimacy as well as personal and romantic expression over the social expectations of extended family harmony and approval, as is the case in Chinese culture.
This finding was not taken into consideration. Instead, each of the couples exhibited a degree of optimism that was comparable to the others. The findings did indicate, however, that the Chinese women had a more general disposition that was unfavorable toward their spouses than the American wives did.
This had an immediate and significant effect on the degree to which the Chinese individuals were satisfied with their romantic relationships. Williamson argues that this might be due to the communal aspect of Chinese society, which discourages individuals from openly expressing their sentiments to close partners and family members.
This could be one of the reasons why the Chinese culture has this problem. The failure to disclose emotional experiences can make open communication more difficult and lead to partners harboring animosity, which in turn can have a detrimental impact on the relationship.
On the other hand, American couples reported higher levels of relationship satisfaction than their counterparts in other countries. This may be because the American society encourages more expressive and autonomous activities. Williamson feels that these findings can assist physicians in a better understanding of the reasons that impede communication among couples whose values are different from those of the majority of Americans.
- In addition, she mentioned that “the culture in which a relationship happens may thus be a significant influence in influencing how individuals behave toward their partner and how they ascribe meaning to this conduct.” Williamson, H;
C., Ju, X., Bradbury, T. N., Karney, B. R., Fang, X., and Liu, X. are the authors of the referenced study (2012). Newlyweds in the United States and China were surveyed on their communication styles and relationship happiness. Journal of Couple and Family Therapy.
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