9. What Is The Thomas And Chess Theory Of Personal Development Of Temperament?

9. What Is The Thomas And Chess Theory Of Personal Development Of Temperament
What exactly is temperament, anyway? – A child’s emotional and behavioral way of reacting to the outside environment is referred to as their temperament. A kid is born with the temperament that she will have throughout her life. Researchers Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess discovered that a person’s temperament may be affected by nine different temperament qualities.

  1. These traits include activity, regularity, initial reaction, adaptability, intensity, mood, distractibility, persistence-attention span, and sensory threshold.
  2. The intensity of each characteristic may be measured on a scale, and the responses of the temperament will change according to the level of each characteristic.

A kid’s distinctive temperament is the result of the combination of these characteristics, and that temperament will have an effect on how others interact with the child, how the child responds emotionally, and how the child responds to novel situations.

What was the name of Thomas and Chess study to measure temperament?

First Things First – The New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS), which was initiated in 1956 by Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess, is regarded as the event that signaled the beginning of contemporary interest in the study of temperament. Although the scientific study of temperament has only been around for a short period of time, the concept of classifying people according to their fundamental behavioral traits is centuries old.

  • Historically, the term “temperament” refers to the distinctions between people that are rooted in their biology, appear early in a person’s existence, and are displayed in a manner that is relatively consistent across a variety of settings and across time.
  • Galen postulated four fundamental temperaments, which can be attributed to a preponderance of one or more of Hippocrates’ four cardinal humors: black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood.

These temperaments are choleric, melancholic, sanguine, and phlegmatic, respectively. Kretchmer in Germany and Sheldon in the United States investigated the connection between fundamental throughout the early years of the twentieth century.

What is the Chess and Thomas theory of temperament quizlet?

A person’s activity level, ability to focus their attention, and emotionality are all aspects of their temperament. Thomas and Chess developed the notion of temperament by dividing newborns into three categories: easy, challenging, and slow-to-warm-up. Other theories evaluate temperament more according to dimensions than they do categories.

What were the results of Thomas & Chess research?

The work that Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess did studying the basic temperaments of infants, and following them through their lives into early adulthood is significant because it proposed that it wasn’t nature (a child’s inborn personality) or nurture (the child’s parent’s parenting style and influence) that determined the happiness and success of that child, but rather the way that nature and nurture fit together.

  1. The New York Longitudinal Study was conducted by Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess.
  2. They came to the conclusion that children whose environments and influences were well-suited to their personalities fare better than children whose environments and personalities fit together less well.
  3. This is because these children’s environments and personalities are more compatible with one another.

The research that they utilized to come to these conclusions began in 1956 and tracked a sample of more than one hundred newborns all the way through 1977. They interviewed the parents and conducted in-depth interviews with the children to gather information about the children’s personalities and behaviors, as well as the attitudes and expectations of the parents regarding their children.

What is the theory of temperament?

The Why-Temperment hypothesis outlines four distinct organizational patterns of personality and is founded on observations of people’s actions that date back more than twenty-five centuries. It explains the “why” behind our actions, as well as the factors that cause us to experience intense psychological stress.

  1. When we are aware of the patterns that make up our temperament, we get insight into our fundamental requirements and principles, as well as the skills that we are more likely to be inclined to cultivate.
  2. Principal Divisions The History of the Four Temperaments and Their Commonalities The content that can be found on this page was taken from Understanding Yourself and Others®: An Introduction to the 4 Temperaments—4.0 by Linda V.

Berens (Radiance House, 2010) Used with the owner’s authorization.

What was the Thomas and Chess study?

Where Did the Concept of Intervention Based on Temperament Come From? The contributions of Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas as trailblazers in the field of temperament-based intervention must be acknowledged in any debate that seeks to be comprehensive.

  1. Chess and Thomas (1984), both of whom were working as practicing psychiatrists in the early 1950s, were astounded by the amount of criticism that mothers got for the conduct of their children.
  2. Chess and Thomas made the observation that infants, beginning in infancy, demonstrated what they first referred to as fundamental response patterns.

This observation was made in contrast to the dominant behaviorist and psychoanalytic ideas that were prevalent in the field of psychology at the time. Chess and Thomas, together with their coworkers, initiated the New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS) in 1956 in order to investigate the ways in which temperament, or the concept that they subsequently referred to as temperament, affected the adjustment of the 138 newborns who made up their sample ( Chess, Thomas, Rutter, & Birch, 1963 ).

A ground-breaking new understanding of human development was presented as a result of the findings of the study. Even while parental skills were substantial contributors to children’s subsequent adjustment, the child’s temperament also played a significant influence in the process. Some youngsters had calm demeanors and easily adapted to the various challenges and opportunities that were presented to them during their lives.

Chess and Thomas described the temperaments of some of the other individuals as being “challenging.” They had negative responses even to very insignificant occurrences. Still some youngsters were initially sluggish to warm up, exhibiting signs of discomfort when meeting new people or being exposed to novel circumstances.

Chess and Thomas were among the first academics to recognize children not only as passive beneficiaries of caregiving but rather as active participants to their own development. They outlined the way in which children and their parents affected each other’s behavior through the exchange of information in both directions.

The framework of “goodness of fit” was utilized in order to comprehend the interaction that occurred between the temperament of the kid and the surroundings. “goodness of fit” occurs, as stated by Chess and Thomas (1999, page 3), “when the attributes of the environment and its expectations and demands are in accordance with the organism’s own capacities, traits, and manner of acting.” The best possible growth for an individual may be attained if the individual’s temperament and the environment are compatible with one another.

  • On the other hand, maladaptive functioning might result from a lack of proper fit.
  • They also stated that while determining whether an individual is a suitable match for a position, one must take into account the norms, expectations, and values of the individual’s socioeconomic and cultural background.

In today’s world, temperament-based intervention is still heavily influenced by the goodness of fit model. It gives practitioners a framework for evaluating persons in the context of their particular environmental setting. When it comes to establishing ways to resolve temperament/environment mismatches, such an approach is one that is not only intuitively attractive but also practical.

What is the term that Thomas and Chess used to describe?

Easy babies. What did Thomas and Chess call infants who tend to have a pessimistic outlook and have difficulty adjusting to novel circumstances? They have a propensity to disengage from the scenario once it is changed. challenging infants.

Which statement about Thomas and Chess is research findings is true?

Which of the following statements on the findings of Thomas and Chess’s research is accurate? According to studies conducted by Thomas and Chess on temperament, an Easy Child is one that quickly establishes regular patterns in infancy, is typically upbeat, and easily adjusts to new experiences. This child made up forty percent of the sample.

What factors influence temperament?

The characteristics of a person’s personality that influence how they respond to the outside environment are referred to as their temperament. Are they still or do they make a lot of noise? How laid back or on edge are you? The characteristics that comprise a person’s temperament are, for the most part, those that we are born with, despite the fact that they are susceptible to modification by an individual’s family, culture, or the experiences that they have had.

  1. The degree of activity
  2. Biological rhythms
  3. Sensitivity
  4. The magnitude of the response
  5. Adaptability
  6. Approach/withdrawal
  7. Persistence
  8. Distractibility
  9. Mood
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Because every individual possesses their own one-of-a-kind blend of personality and temperament features, it’s possible that you and another person, or even your child, may have certain characteristics but have others that set you apart. These characteristics are a component of a person’s personality and one of the aspects that contribute to the individuality of each of us.

What is the major conclusion from Thomas and Chess longitudinal study of temperament?

People’s mental models that they use to interpret and make sense of their experiences. What do you think the most important takeaway is from the longitudinal research of temperament that Thomas and Chess conducted? a. The temperaments of children have a tendency to progress through stages that are predictable.

What are the three categories of temperament identified by Thomas and Chess?

According to Thomas and Chess, there are three primary categories of temperaments that may be found in children. These categories are easy, slow-to-warm, and tough. Children that have an easy temperament are often joyful and active from birth, and they adapt quickly to many new circumstances and settings.

What is the difficult child according to Thomas and Chess?

9. What Is The Thomas And Chess Theory Of Personal Development Of Temperament The manner in which an individual acts, learns, and interacts with other people may all be influenced by their temperament. Two psychologists named Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess conducted a study in which they attempted to determine a child’s temperament.

  1. The conclusions of their research are rather fascinating.
  2. Discovering the Help You Need at a Price You Can Afford – Click Here for More Information The Longitudinal Study of New York City (NYLS) The New York Life Survey (NYLS) was a survey that began in 1956 and continued for decades.
  3. Its purpose was to investigate the characteristics of children’s temperaments and to identify such characteristics.

In the end, the research was able to identify nine characteristics that can be components of an individual’s temperament. These characteristics were able to be quantified, and extremes were not common. Nevertheless, the vast majority of youngsters exhibit varying degrees of the following characteristics, depending on their age: Energy levels.

  1. This test examined how much natural energy a youngster possesses, which you may have predicted before.
  2. It is problematic for a youngster to have low energy levels since it makes it more difficult for the child to finish activities.
  3. Children that are very hyperactive can be difficult to keep under control, and they may have trouble remaining still for lengthy periods of time.

They could fidget or try to get up out of their seat when they’re at school. How well a youngster is able to stick to a schedule. The importance of routines cannot be overstated in life. We are able to wake up, eat breakfast, go to school, return home, relax, and continue with our daily activities.

  1. Some youngsters adjust quite well to having a set schedule.
  2. A youngster who does not have a set schedule is more likely to exhibit erratic behavior and to skip out on events.
  3. If there is a sudden change in the child’s schedule, having an overly regimented routine may cause the youngster to get anxious.

The degree to which a youngster would embrace a novel event or refuse to participate in it. Some children will readily choose to participate in a new activity when given the opportunity. This may cause them to be open to any new experience under the sun, but it also increases the likelihood that they will go into the encounter unprepared, which can be troublesome.

  1. A youngster who withdraws from their peers and their environment may be better equipped overall, but the difficulty arises when the child is unable to confront new situations at all.
  2. How well they can adjust to different conditions in their surroundings.
  3. If anything in their environment changes, they might be able to adjust to the new conditions quite quickly.

A youngster could become more reserved or timid as a result of new regulations, a new school, or even moving. A youngster who is very adaptable may struggle with the difficulties associated with being overly easily affected by their surroundings. The degree to which they are affected by various stimuli.

While some youngsters are able to respond effectively to novel stimuli, others struggle to maintain their composure in the face of these challenges. A reaction that is intense might be distracting, yet a response that is less intense or none at all can provide its own set of issues. How strongly they react when something is stimulated.

A youngster that reacts very strongly to stimuli is likely to display their feelings more openly. They are prone to crying quite a lot in the event that something tragic takes place. In the event that something humorous takes place, they will laugh a lot.

Having said that, having a response that is excessively large might make it tough for others to manage when it comes to the answers. It may be more challenging for others to read the replies of a youngster who either makes fewer comments or keeps them muffled. The disposition of the youngster. Are they more likely to have a good or negative disposition? Some youngsters have a more optimistic disposition by nature.

An excessive amount of optimism might make it difficult for others to recognize when the youngster is experiencing emotional suffering. It might be challenging to understand a youngster who has a predisposition toward pessimism. How easy a youngster might be sidetracked by other things when it comes to particular occurrences.

  • Children who have a hard time focusing on one thing at a time may be able to take in what’s going on around them, but they will struggle to complete activities that need concentration.
  • Children who aren’t easily distracted are able to complete their activity more quickly, but they also run the risk of missing a change that might have an impact on them if they don’t respond to it in a timely manner.

How the youngster is able to persevere in the face of challenges. Children that are persistent may be able to complete a task even if they become dissatisfied with it. They are less likely to grow frustrated and give up on their assignment if they encounter a difficult challenge while they are working on it.

  1. Children who have a lower capacity for perseverance are more likely to give up at the first sight of difficulty.
  2. Having said that, an excessive amount of tenacity might become an issue if a youngster does not recognize when they are in a circumstance that is above their capabilities.
  3. If something is not going as planned, it is sometimes OK to seek assistance or give up on it altogether.

A profile of the kid will be developed when these characteristics have been assessed and compiled. This description is appropriate for use with young children, including infants as young as a few months old. In the study, controls were used to account for people’s racial and gender identities, as well as their levels of income and any mental problems they may have.

Even while not every child will have a personality that fits exactly into one of the kinds described, these characteristics may be used to construct a variety of personality types. The Different Kinds of Personalities Easy Forty percent of the youngsters that were investigated fell into the “easy” category.

An easy child is one who is optimistic, well-regulated, does not react strongly to new events, and is able to adjust to whatever challenges they may encounter. A kid who is simple to care for is able to set routines for themselves, including specific times of day when they eat and sleep.

  1. They are optimistic and upbeat, and they have the ability to conform to regulations as they are taught.
  2. Children who are easy to raise and who, on the whole, experience less challenges throughout their lives are referred to as “easy children.” The reason for this is because it is simpler to care for such children.
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Children Who Cause Difficulties Children that are difficult to raise are the complete opposite. They operate in an erratic manner, have a strong emotional response to every given stimuli, avoid novel circumstances, are unable to adjust, and have a pessimistic outlook.

As a result of these issues, they have been referred to as tough owing to the perception that it is more challenging to bring them up. They will have trouble maintaining regular eating and sleeping schedules, will have difficulty adapting to new patterns, and will demand a great deal of tolerance from their parents as they grow up.

This represented around 10 percent of the youngsters who participated in the research. A kid who has difficulty adapting to new situations or dealing with various challenges may be considered challenging, although this does not always imply that the child is misbehaving.

  1. Warming Up Gradually These are kids that take their time getting comfortable with new situations, and 15 percent of the kids in the research had this personality feature.
  2. They lacked enthusiasm, retreated from things that were foreign to them, and had trouble keeping a positive attitude at all times, which made it difficult for them to function normally.

However, with time they would become more receptive to the adjustments. Finding the Help You Need at a Price You Can Afford Should Be Your Priority – Find Out More Here If you do the math, you may have concluded that this only accounted for 65% of the children that were studied in the article.

So, let’s talk about the other 35, shall we? The remaining 35 individuals possessed a mix of characteristics that did not precisely correspond to any of the aforementioned personality categories. They could be simple at times, but tough when other circumstances arise. Children, it turns out, can be very different from one another in a variety of ways.

They were born in this manner for no other reason. Why is it Important to Remember This? Having an insight of a child’s temperament may help you gain a deeper comprehension not just of your own child but also of yourself. Even within the same family, children might have extremely diverse personalities.

  1. This is something that can be observed.
  2. The temperament of a kid is said to be “inborn,” yet it may be molded by the surroundings and the care that the youngster receives.
  3. Personality is formed not just by one’s experiences but also by one’s genes, and temperament also plays a part in the formation of one’s personality.

Counseling might be beneficial if you want to better understand your child’s temperament and personality, or even if you want to better understand yourself. 9. What Is The Thomas And Chess Theory Of Personal Development Of Temperament

What are four temperament theories?

Individuals were said to be sanguine (optimistic, social, and associated with the element of air), melancholic (analytical, quiet, associated with the element of earth), choleric (short-tempered, irritable, associated with fire), or phlegmatic (relaxed, peaceful, associated with water) according to the four temperaments (Buckingham, 2002).2017 publication entitled Creativity and the Performing Artist.

Who is the father of temperament theory?

Guests – Jerome Kagan

Who developed temperament theory?

Histories – The ancient notion of humourism is where the origins of the temperament theory may be found. It’s possible that it was invented in Mesopotamia, but the Greek physician Hippocrates (460–370 BC) and subsequently Galen were the ones who turned it into a medical theory.

  • He believed that certain human dispositions, feelings, and behaviors were brought on by an excess or lack of certain body fluids (which he referred to as “humours”), which he categorized as blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm.
  • He also believed that the phlegm was the most important of these fluids.

Each of these factors was responsible for distinct characteristics of people’s personalities as well as the risk that an individual had of contracting a sickness. In his dissertation titled “De temperamentis,” which he wrote between the years 129 and 200 AD, Galen devised the first typology of temperament.

  • He was also interested in discovering the physiological underpinnings of different human behaviors.
  • From the perspective of the four elements, he categorized them as either hot or cold and either dry or wet.
  • There is also the possibility of harmony between the traits, which would bring the total number of temperaments to nine.

The word “temperament” originates from the Latin verb “to mix,” which is translated as “temperare.” The complimentary qualities of a warm and cold disposition, as well as a dry and wet one, should be beautifully balanced in an ideal personality. One of the four attributes predominated over the others in each of the four kinds that fell short of the ideal.

  1. One set of characteristics predominated over its complimentary counterpart in each of the four remaining kinds; for example, warm and moist predominated over chilly and dry.
  2. The last four temperamental groups were named by Galen after the body humours; he called them sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic, respectively.

Each condition was brought on by an excess of one of the humors, which led to an imbalance in the paired attributes. In addition, the characteristics of these four humours mirrored those of the four seasons. Therefore, spring was associated with blood, as it was thought of as being warm and moist.

  • Summer was associated with yellow bile, which was characterized as being hot and dry.
  • The season of autumn was represented by black bile, which was icy and parched.
  • And lastly, winter was associated with phlegm since it was a chilly and wet substance.
  • These characteristics were thought to be the foundation of both health and illness.

Because of this, it was determined that good health was characterized by a balance and a good combination of the humours, but sickness was caused by an imbalance in the humours or by a separation of the humours. Altering one’s behaviors relating to one’s health so that they are more in line with the prevailing season was one strategy for warding off sickness and maintaining a healthy balance of humours.

Some doctors achieved this by imposing dietary restrictions on their patients, while others relied on treatments like as phlebotomy and purges to remove the patient’s surplus of blood. Even Galen put up a notion regarding the significance of adequate digestion in the process of producing healthy blood.

When it comes to digestion, the types of food being consumed and the temperature of the individual’s body were thought to be the two most essential elements. This indicated that if there was an excessive amount of heat present, then the blood would become “overcooked.” This meant that it would include an excessive amount of the yellow bile, which would result in the patient developing a fever.

  1. In the event that there was insufficient heat present, this would result in an excessive amount of phlegm.
  2. There are four types of temperaments: choleric, sanguine, melancholic, and phlegmatic.
  3. The Persian polymath Avicenna (980–1037 AD) expanded the notion of temperaments in his Canon of Medicine, which was a common medical text at many medieval institutions.

This work was published in the 17th century as part of the Grande Commande. He applied them to things like “emotional characteristics,” “mental ability,” “moral attitudes,” “self-awareness,” “movements,” and “dreams.” Nicholas Culpeper (1616–1654) proposed that the humors operated as ruling factors in physiological health and described their impact upon physiognomy and personality.

  1. Culpeper lived from 1616 until 1654.
  2. He hypothesized that some individuals only possessed a single temperament, whilst others possessed a combination of two, known as a main and secondary temperament.
  3. Although the beliefs of the four temperaments have been discredited by contemporary medical research, certain sub-disciplines of psychology continue to make use of them as metaphors.

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925), Alfred Adler (1879–1937), Erich Adickes (1866–1925), Eduard Spranger (1914), Ernst Kretschmer (1920), and Erich Fromm (1947) are just some of the individuals who theorized on the four temperaments (under different names) and significantly influenced modern theories of temperament.

  • Hans Eysenck (1916–1997) was a pioneer in the field of psychology.
  • He was one of the first psychologists to examine differences in personality using a psycho-statistical method known as factor analysis.
  • Eysenck’s research led him to the conclusion that temperament can be traced back to biological factors.
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Neuroticism (N), which he defined as the propensity to experience unpleasant emotions, and extraversion (E), which he defined as the propensity to take pleasure in good experiences, particularly social ones, were the two elements that he presented in his book Dimensions of Personality.

  1. Eysenck found that when you combined the two dimensions, you got findings that were quite comparable to the four old temperaments.
  2. In the study of the human body’s physiology.
  3. Ivan Pavlov’s research on the different kinds of nervous systems and their characteristics led to the discovery of three primary types of characteristics: (1) strength; (2) mobility of nervous processes; and (3) balance between excitation and inhibition.

Pavlov’s studies led to the derivation of four types of nervous systems based on these three characteristics. Other scholars produced systems that were similar, many of which did not utilize the historical names for the temperaments, and some of which combined extraversion with a separate element that would determine relationship and task-orientation.

Examples are DISC assessment and social styles. One of the most widely used nowadays is the Keirsey Temperament Sorter. Its four temperaments were mapped to the 16 types of the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator. These temperaments were mostly based on the Greek gods Apollo, Dionysus, Epimetheus, and Prometheus (MBTI).

After their rebranding, their new names are Artisan (SP), Guardian (SJ), Idealist (NF), and Rational (NT).

Relation of various four temperament theories

Classical Element Adler Riemann DISC (Different publishers use different names)
Melancholic Water Avoiding Depressed Conscientiousness/Cautious
Phlegmatic Earth Leaning Schizoid Steadiness/Supportive
Sanguine Air Socially Useful Hysterical Influence/Inspiring
Choleric Fire Ruling Obsessive Dominance

What was the purpose of the New York Longitudinal Study?

Description The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the development of personality characteristics such as temperament, anxiety, adjustment, and self-image, as well as cognitive development and academic achievement, family structure and function, parent-child relationships, the development of clinical symptomatology, peer relationships, the development of sexuality, drug use and abuse, vocational interests and career development, and health and physical development.

The primary sample for the research was made up of 133 white newborns from middle class households, of which there were 66 males and 67 females. These children and their families were contacted for the first time in 1956 and were then followed up with on many times until 1988. The researchers spoke with the subjects’ parents on multiple occasions throughout the first two years of their child’s life to discuss the child’s behaviors in a variety of subject areas (such as sleeping, eating, bathing, toileting, mobility, social responsivity, and sensory functioning), the parents’ daily care of the child, and the specifics of day-to-day living.

As the kid grew older, the scope of the data collection was broadened to encompass other settings in which the youngster participated. Interviews were conducted with one hundred mothers and ninety-three dads when their children were roughly three years old.

  1. They were asked to fill out the Parental Attitude Research Instrument (Schaefer and Bell, 1958).
  2. In addition, the researchers assessed the patients’ living conditions at home as well as any unusual environmental factors that may have been present (e.g.
  3. , separations, divorces, remarriages, deaths).
  4. Both the kid and his or her parents participated in separate interviews during adolescence and early adulthood.

These interviews were held independently from one another. During these interviews, we also asked you some additional questions about your intentions for college, your future ambitions, as well as your sexual and social functioning. One-third of the respondents who were adolescents participated in the teen evaluation and filled out the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire.

Transcripts, interviews, grading scales, grade summaries, clinical interviews, observation transcripts, and school reports are some of the types of documents that may be found in the Murray Research Archive (for 1956-1988 data). The participation of the contributor is required in order to carry out follow-up.

Academic success and the maturation of one’s personality are two keywords to consider.

What did Jerome Kagan study?

References –

  1. ^ Sweeney, S. (2010-04-15). “Most of the time, we are what we used to be.” Harvard Gazette . Retrieved 2012-07-30 .
  2. Harvard University’s “Department Directory,” which may be seen here. This version was saved as the original on 2012-01-20. Retrieved 2011-11-28 .
  3. ^ Kagan, J. (2004). The Prolonged Repercussions of Temperament The President and Fellows of Harvard College representing the United States of America
  4. ^ Haggbloom, S.J.
  5. et al (2002). The PDF document is titled “The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century.” Review of General Psychology.6 (2), pages 139–152. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139 . S2CID 145668721 . This version was retrieved from the archival backup (PDF) on 2012-12-24. The researchers Haggbloom et al. combined three quantitative variables with three qualitative variables that were then converted to quantitative scores. The quantitative variables included citations in professional journals, citations in textbooks, and nominations in a survey given to members of the Association for Psychological Science. The qualitative variables included membership in the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), service as President or recipient of the Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award from the American Psychological Association (APA), and the use of a surname as an eponym After that, the list was ranked in ascending order.
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  7. the pages range from 115 to 149. ISBN 978-1591477969 .
  8. Distinguished Alumnus, Rahway High School 24 May 2021, when it was accessed. “Jerome Kagan, Ph.D., graduated from RHS in 1946 and is currently a Professor of Psychology at Harvard University, where he also serves as the Director of the multidisciplinary Mind, Brain, and Behavior Initiative at Harvard.”
  9. N.N. (1988). “Jerome Kagan,” in American Psychologist, vol.43, no.4, pp.223–225. doi: 10.1037/h0091993 .
  10. Kagan, J. (2003). “Biology, Context, and Developmental Inquiry.” Annual Review of Psychology.54.1–23.
  11. ^ Kagan, J. (1981). The second year marks the beginning of the development of self awareness. Harvard University Press, located in the United States of America
  12. ISBN: 9780674796638.
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  14. Kearsley, R.B.
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  18. Gross, Daniel (2014). A Transatlantic Perspective on Science and Emotions after the Second World War The University of Chicago Press in Chicago published page 114 under the ISBN number 9780226126487.
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What is the major conclusion from Thomas and Chess longitudinal study of temperament?

People’s mental models that they use to interpret and make sense of their experiences. What do you think the most important takeaway is from the longitudinal research of temperament that Thomas and Chess conducted? a. The temperaments of children have a tendency to progress through stages that are predictable.