16. What Invention Allowed For The Development Of Small Personal Computers?
- Michael Davis
Invention of the Personal Computer: Postwar Innovations – ENIAC and other early computers demonstrated to many universities and corporations that the machines were worth the significant investment of money, space, and manpower that was required to operate them.
This led to the development of the personal computer. (For instance, the ENIAC was able to solve the issue of a missile’s trajectory in thirty seconds, but it would have taken a group of human “computers” twelve hours to do it.) During this same time period, advances in technology made it feasible to construct computers that were more streamlined and could fit into smaller spaces.
In 1948, Bell Labs created the transistor, an electronic device that transported and amplified electrical current but was considerably smaller than the unwieldy vacuum tube. The vacuum tube had been the standard electronic component until the transistor came along.
After ten years, researchers at Texas Instruments and Fairchild Semiconductor came up with the idea of an integrated circuit. This was an innovation that combined all of the electrical components of a computer, such as transistors, capacitors, resistors, and diodes, onto a single silicon chip.
The microprocessor, on the other hand, was one of the most important innovations that helped pave the way for the personal computer revolution. Before the development of microprocessors, every single one of a computer’s operations required to be handled by a distinct integrated circuit chip.
- (This was one of the reasons why the machines remained as enormous as they were.) The microprocessors were about the size of a thumbnail, and they had capabilities that the integrated-circuit chips did not have;
For example, they were able to run the programs on the computer, recall information, and handle data all by themselves. Scroll to Continue Ted Hoff, an engineer working at Intel at the time, was the creator of the world’s first commercially available microprocessor in 1971.
What made the development of personal computers possible?
The microprocessor and efforts to lower costs (edit) – The predecessors of the current personal computer were minicomputers that did not include microprocessors. These minicomputers utilised early integrated circuit (microchip) technology, which allowed them to be smaller and less expensive.
This meant that, much like their mainframe ancestors, they were still rather huge and challenging to construct. As soon as a “computer-on-a-chip” was made available for commercial use, the price of producing a computer system reduced by a significant amount.
The arithmetic, logic, and control functions that had previously filled a number of expensive circuit boards are now available in a single integrated circuit, which enables high-volume production of the functions. In parallel, progress was made in the field of solid state memory, which made it possible to do away with the cumbersome, expensive, and power-hungry magnetic core memory that had been utilized in earlier generations of computers.
An advancement in MOS technology known as the silicon-gate MOS chip was invented by Federico Faggin in 1968. Faggin went on to use the silicon-gate MOS technology to create the first single-chip microprocessor, the Intel 4004, which was released in 1971.
The silicon-gate MOS chip made it possible for microprocessors to be built on a single chip. A handful of academics at institutions such as SRI and Xerox PARC were working on computers that a single person would be able to operate and that were capable of being connected via quick and flexible networks.
These machines were referred to as personal computers rather than home computers. Joseph Weisbecker at RCA was the one who conceived and built the first genuine home computer, which was known as FRED. However, management’s interest in this project was divided.
The design of the central processing unit (CPU) was made public in 1974 under the name COSMAC, and in 1975, numerous experimental machines that used it were constructed. However, RCA did not choose to commercialize any of these machines until 1976, when they introduced the COSMAC ELF in kit form.
- At this point, the market had already been flooded with a variety of different equipment;
- After Intel released their 4004 microprocessor in 1972, the price of microprocessors began a precipitous drop;
- The American electronic publication Radio-Electronics published an article in 1974 describing the Mark-8 computer kit, which was based on the Intel 8008 CPU;
Popular Electronics magazine released an article in January of the following year outlining a kit based on the Intel 8080, which is a considerably more powerful and easier to use CPU. The article was written about the kit. In spite of the fact that the Altair 8800’s initial memory size could only be a few hundred bytes and there was no software available, the computer did exceptionally well in the marketplace.
Companies who were interested in creating microprocessor control for their own goods acquired the Altair kit since it was significantly more affordable than an Intel development system of the time. Soon after, the original maker began listing expansion memory boards and peripherals, and soon after that, plug compatible manufacturers began doing the same.
Users were able to create programs in a higher-level language by using the very first Microsoft product, which was a BASIC interpreter that was 4 kilobytes long and stored on paper tape. The other option was to manually compile machine code that was then able to be directly loaded into the memory of the microcomputer through the use of a front panel that consisted of toggle switches, pushbuttons, and LED displays.
What invention made computers smaller and faster?
Even though there were only 250 computers in use throughout the world in 1955, personal computers are today a relatively popular device found in many homes. In 1955, there were only 250 computers in use. More than one million personal computers were purchased by their owners by the year 1980; by the middle of the 1980s, this number had increased to 30 million.
Where did this idea originate from? In 1955, a computer was extremely huge and would not have been able to fit into a standard room in a standard-sized home. They regularly caught fire and had a propensity to attract moths into the system, which caused them to get overloaded and short-circuit.
(The phrase “getting a bug” in your computer now dates back to the days when moths were an issue for the early computers.) In the late 1950s, one of the primary components of computers, the valve, was supplanted by the far more compact transistor. This resulted in a reduction in the overall size of computers.
- Because of this, computers were significantly more trustworthy, and as a result, companies became significantly more interested in using them;
- Companies such as IBM are able to sell mainframe computers for a price that is equivalent to slightly about half a million dollars in today’s currency;
By the middle of the 1960s, the microchip had begun to completely supplant the transistor. It’s possible that a microchip has more than one transistor on it. But because it was more compact, it resulted in another another reduction in the size of computers.
By the year 1965, there were 20,000 computers in operation around the globe. The IBM System/360 was by far the most well-known. The invention of the microchip also led to the development of computers that were able to fit into rooms of a typical size seen in residential buildings.
By 1970, a single microchip had the capacity to house a thousand transistors. In 1970, the price of a home personal computer equivalent to today’s price would have been close to £70,000. 1971 was the year when retail sales of the microprocessor began. The Intel 4004, which was developed by Ted Hoff of Intel, was intended to make home computing completely different.
- The cost of the 4004 was equivalent to little more than $3000 in today’s currency; however, by 1972, Intel had manufactured the 8008, which was far more powerful than the 4004 but cost just one-tenth as much as the 4004 did;
Although microprocessors had a wide variety of applications, one of its primary usage was as the central processing unit of genuine personal computers. At the beginning of the 1970s, the only people who used personal computers were enthusiasts. The Altair 8800 was the first personal computer designed specifically for use as a “hobby,” and it sold for a little less than $900 in today’s money.
- It possessed the processing capability of a computer from the 1950s that would have cost one million dollars today;
- In 1975, Bill Gates and Paul Allen developed a software for the Altair computer that enabled users to write their own programs using the BASIC programming language;
The tool was named “BASIC Writer.” Their newly established business first went by the name Micro-Soft, but it was eventually rebranded as Microsoft. The members of Microsoft in 1978; Bill Gates may be seen in the bottom left corner, and Paul Allen can be seen in the bottom right.
- Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs both contributed to the establishment of Apple Computers in 1975;
- Apple was the company that pioneered the “home computer” or “personal computer,” which anybody could use;
- In 1977, the Apple II personal computer was introduced, and it was an instant hit with consumers;
The personal computer was enclosed in an attractive plastic shell, and in addition to a keyboard and video unit, it made use of floppy discs that could be removed. Most importantly, the price, in terms of today’s currency, was only 2,400 pounds. Apple Computers became the dominant company in the market for personal computers as a direct result of the widespread popularity of the Apple II.
By the year 1980, there were one million personal computers in use around the globe. The development of spreadsheet software by Dan Bricklin marked the beginning of the widespread use of personal computers in commercial settings.
His application, which was for the Apple II and was called VisiCalc, was created by him. 1979 was the year it was released to the public, and after only four years it had already sold 700,000 copies at a price of $250 each. In 1981, IBM released its own personal computer to the public.
In the end, 85 percent of all personal computers were going to be compatible with IBM. Microsoft was awarded the contract to develop the operating system for the personal computer manufactured by IBM. MS-DOS was the name that Microsoft gave to its new operating system.
The business made $10 off of each copy sold. In the 1980s, more than 30 million personal computers were outfitted with the MS-DOS operating system.
What technological device for computers was introduced during the 1970’s?
The 1970s were the decade that saw the beginning of modern computers. The Intel 4004 was the world’s first general-purpose microprocessor, and it was released in November 1971.
How did people use computers in the 70s?
Alterations Made to Computers During the 1970s – Over the course of the previous few decades, computers have made significant advancements in both broadening people’s access to the world and enhancing its overall quality. In the 1970s, there were very few people who were completely unaware of where their computer technology would eventually go.
Even fewer of them undoubtedly had the foresight to see that they would develop into what they are now in the future. In contrast, the widespread use of computers did not start to catch on until the decade of the 1970s.
As a consequence of this, a number of businesses have been extending their operations and making improvements to their computer technology in order to raise the potential income and to make personal home computers more accessible and enjoyable to use for everyone.
- A rough estimate of how commonplace computers were in the 1970s Atari Video Computer System $199 1979 in New York City Computer Model TRS-80 Sold at Radio Shack $399 Illinois 1978 In the 1970s, one of the most successful corporations in the computer technology industry was the Tandy Corporation;
The TRS-80, which would go on to become their most famous product, first appeared on store shelves in the late 1970s and was an instant hit. People anxiously awaited the launch of this product, which was going to be available nowhere else than at Radio Shack.
- With a price tag of about $600, a personal computer is within reach of the budgets of a large number of common people;
- In point of fact, more than 10,000 TRS-80s were purchased in the very first month that the product was available to consumers;
Over 55,000 people acquired a Tandy TRS-80 to use in their homes or offices during its first year on the market, and during 250,000 of these computers were sold over the subsequent several years. The TRS-80 was discontinued in 1981 to make room for other brands and models that were both more advanced and more popular.
- The TRS-80, produced by Tandy Corporation, had an integrated keyboard and motherboard;
- This eventually turned into a standard practice that other corporations adopted for their own personal computer offerings;
In addition to this, it had a 1.77 MHz processor, which was practically unheard of for personal computers at the time that it was brought to market. The data was stored on regular cassette tapes, and the display on the monitor was a white-on-black monochrome screen that showed almost exclusively capital characters.
Owners of a TRS-80 might choose to extend their storage capacity by purchasing a separate floppy disk drive or update their existing drive for an additional fee. The fact that it included software that users could use to play famous video games of the era, such as Pac-Man, Centipede, and Galaxian, contributed to the product’s widespread adoption in many households.
The TRS-80 was also equipped with office programs, such as a word processor, calculator, and capability for early spreadsheets. 1977 saw the launch of the Apple II, which was manufactured by Apple Company. The Apple II was developed primarily with broad market appeal in mind, which contributed to the product’s favorable reception from consumers.
- Because it was the first of the successful home computer systems in the United States, many people feel that this model was the start of the personal computer revolution;
- In point of fact, this is the model that many people perceive to be the beginning of the personal computer revolution;
This model was so long-lasting and well-liked by consumers that it continued to be in demand well into the early 1990s; in fact, some of them are still being utilized in educational settings to this very day. Computer users had the option of purchasing an Apple II and connecting it to their television set in order to use it as a monitor for a fee that ranged from $1300 to $2600 depending on the amount of memory they choose.
- The Apple II was packaged in a sturdy carrying case and boasted color graphics with a high resolution as well as an outstanding sound system;
- Both the Applesoft and Integer programming languages were utilized within the device, and both of these languages were derived from the BASIC (Beginner’s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) programming language;
The product was housed within a computer. The hard drive was also a 1 MHz with 4 kilobytes of memory, which, at the time, was a tremendous quantity of storage capacity that people could utilize for a number of reasons. People were able to use this storage capacity for a variety of things.
- Users of the Apple II may upgrade to a floppy disk drive or purchase an external floppy disk drive the year after it was first made available to the public in order to replace cassette tapes as their primary storage medium;
Not only was this method more convenient, but drives also offered a greater capacity for storing data than other options. The use of personal computers first became widespread in the late 1970s, and their development has not slowed down since that time.
Numerous businesses were aware of the developments occurring in the computer industry during the decade and made efforts in the next decade to enhance the quality of their existing offerings. People in the late 1970s were quick to embrace the personal computer and utilized them for a number of purposes, including gaming, office applications, home finance management, data storage, and many other choices.
This trend continued throughout the 1980s. Companies and individuals alike were aware of the boundless opportunities afforded to them by the possession of their very own personal computer, and they took full use of a great deal of those opportunities. Although IBM’s personal computer, known as the PC, did not become available to consumers until 1981, the foundational technologies that were required to construct the PC began to emerge in the 1970s from companies such as Intel and Microsoft.
What key technological development led to the faster smaller and less expensive computers and devices in use today?
Computers of the Third Generation Integrated circuits, also known as semiconductor chips, were made up of a significant number of transistors of a small size packed onto silicon chips. This resulted in not just a speed improvement for computers, but also a reduction in their size, an increase in their power, and a decrease in their overall cost.
When did personal computers come out?
The earliest personal computers were sold as kits when they were released in 1975. These kits included the MITS Altair 8800, which was followed by the IMSAI 8080, which was a clone of the Altair.
How did the personal computer change the course of human life today?
The Personal Computer Revolution: Crash Course Computer Science #25
The proliferation of computers and the tasks they can do has occurred at a breakneck pace all around the globe. Because of the breadth of their capabilities, they are put to use in a variety of contexts. It contributes to the resolution of issues that are experienced by human existence on a regular basis.
As a result, they have a greater amount of power over our lives. The benefits of computer use in our lives may be broken down into three categories: money saved, time saved, and effort saved. Take a look at the advancements that have been made in the fields of communication, education, utility facilities, and medical care to get an idea of how deeply computers have penetrated all aspects of human existence.
The computer has been considered as the most successful and life-changing invention that has been effective in solving difficulties in human life during the previous three decades. Almost anywhere a firm operates in today’s world, one may find people using computers.
- If we take a look at the educational sector, the health sector, the transportation sector, or the communication sector, we can see how computers have influenced and been applied in those areas;
- In today’s high-tech environment, it is nearly impossible for a company to thrive without employing some form of computer technology, either directly or indirectly;
The topic “Computer and Human Life” has emerged as one of the most intriguing topics discussed in classrooms and academic institutions such as colleges and universities. Therefore, students are frequently requested to write on “How have computers impacted our life?” or “Influence of Computers in Human Life” in a variety of essays and group discussions, notably in educational institutions such as schools and colleges.
It may be difficult to list all of the areas in which computers have made an impact on human life, but some examples include: mobile phones, television shows, supermarkets, hospitals, railways, matrimonial services, share tradings, online purchasing, banking, sports, traffic controls, security surveillance systems, job recruitment, robotics, machine learning, and artificial intelligence, to name just a few.
Other areas include:.
Who contributed to the development of computers?
Charles Babbage was an English mathematician and inventor. He was born on December 26, 1791 in London, England, and passed away on October 18, 1871 in London. Babbage is credited with inventing the idea for the first automated digital computer.
What is the historical development of computer?
Beginning about two thousand years ago in Babylonia (now known as Mesopotamia), the development of the abacus marks the beginning of the history of computers. The abacus was a wooden rack that held two horizontal wires that had beads strung on them. It is generally agreed that Blaise Pascal constructed the very first digital computer in the year 1642.